Czechoslovakia was exceptional in vetting its police force and interior ministry, but it did not put its military intelligence service through the same scrutiny. Conclusion Evaluating intelligence reform in the emerging democracies of central and eastern Europe is complicated by their simultaneous response to conflicting security paradigms, their varying reform contexts, and the often very different criteria used by the evaluators, ranging from the ridiculous--the presence or absence of scandal--to the sublime--the extent of actual democratic oversight and real operational effectiveness.
Thus, access to Western intelligence assistance initially was not available to those states and services most in need of it. Council of the National Salvation Front, Decree no. It is hard to overemphasize the significance of this factor. Practically, however, the recasting of entire states has meant thinly spread resources, insufficient administrative capacity, high levels of political uncertainty, and institutional confusion.
By this time BritainCanada, and the United States had already engaged in secret exploratory talks on security arrangements that would serve as an alternative to the United Nations UNwhich was becoming paralyzed by the rapidly emerging Cold War.
Securitate officers working under diplomatic cover abroad, for example, were forbidden to accept any invitations to Soviet embassy functions.
In most post-authoritarian states such conditions do not prevail. The aims of the reformers were to restructure legal and oversight frameworks, intelligence bodies, and intelligence procedures and practices in full conformity with democratic principles and in such a manner as to retain their effectiveness.
In keeping with the first objective, NATO established the North Atlantic Cooperation Council ; later replaced by the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council to provide a forum for the exchange of views on political and security issues, as well as the Partnership for Peace PfP program to enhance European security and stability through joint military training exercises with NATO and non-NATO states, including the former Soviet republics and allies.
Nor does the European Union provide a useful template. What became known as the Iron Curtaina term popularized by Winston Churchillhad descended over central and eastern Europe.
Princeton University Press, ; and Loch K. The general consequence in the northern half of Europe was the creation of various, primarily legislative, oversight bodies entitled to the necessary levels of information that would permit them to better control intelligence organs.
Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland all initially chose to maintain their intelligence services in basically the same structure and with the same personnel as under communist rule.
If the NATO MAP experience has proven anything, it is that outside assistance, when sought, is critical to the nature of intelligence reform.
In the United States launched the Marshall Planwhich infused massive amounts of economic aid to the countries of western and southern Europe on the condition that they cooperate with each other and engage in joint planning to hasten their mutual recovery.
Regarding Romania, for example, see V. The measured pace of reform presumed the existence of stable democratic institutions and a secure environment free of perceived immediate threats that might otherwise drive or condition the reform process.
Shortly after World War II, the United States took the initial step toward major change when it introduced the first public laws establishing the mandates and powers of the intelligence services: The potential for abuse was always inherent in such wide-ranging discretionary powers.
Secondly, even where substantial numbers of personnel were designated as unsuitable, enough were left to dominate the new services. Lacking effective intelligence services, a state cannot anticipate, prevent, or protect itself against major threats to its national security.North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), military alliance established by the North Atlantic Treaty (also called the Washington Treaty) of April 4,which sought to create a counterweight to Soviet armies stationed in central and eastern Europe after World War II.
including most of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, and has helped to promote peace, stability, and economic prosperity throughout the European continent. The EU has been built through a series of binding treaties. Only twelve out of nineteen central European countries (I do not count the Transcaucasian and central Asian OSCE members as part of this group) have formally applied for NATO membership.
Enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the process of including new member states in NATO.
NATO is a military alliance of twenty-seven European and two North American countries that constitutes a system of collective defense. Jul 11, · Sharing strategic interests and facing the same challenges, NATO and the European Union (EU) cooperate on issues of common interest and are working side by side in crisis management, capability development and political consultations.
Confronted by an aggressive Russia and protected by a European Union and NATO treaty alliance that have come under pressure at home and abroad, an understanding of Baltic security in the context of European and international security and stability is an important topic of discussion.Download